Makalu, Post-Monsoon. There were two successful Spanish expeditions on the Kukuczka ridge of Makalu in the post-monsoon season. An expedition led by Jordi Bosch placed Josep Permane on the summit on September 24 and Xavier Robiro and Carles Figueras on September 30. This group made two unauthorized ascents of Kangchungtse by its south ridge: Ramón Estiu on September 15 and Joan Cardona on September 30. (There has been an increase of illegal ascents of late. A Spaniard, Antonio Martínez, not a member of either of these expeditions, was stopped before he had climbed very high on Dhaulagiri by a government-appointed liaison officer with an authorized expedition. He was taken to Kathmandu, where he was fined about $1750.) The second Spanish expedition was led by Alberto Iñurrategi. On September 30, Alberto and Félix Iñurrategi and Felipe Uriarte reached the summit of Makalu.