Mountaineering in Greenland 1977–1986
Dolfi Rotovnik and Peter Søndergaard, Dansk Bjergklub
THE WORLD’S LARGEST ISLAND, Greenland, fascinates mountaineers throughout the continents. It is a vast country covered by ice and snow and with mountains as numerous as the stars in the sky. This region of mountains, fjords and arctic glaciers has been the goal of over 80 mountaineering expeditions during the decade of 1977 to 1986. Probably expeditions have taken place which were not registered. Some expeditions have also not responded to our request for a report. Adding to these all the scientific (geological, zoological, botanical) expeditions, probably more than 200 expeditions have been carried out.
Previously new areas and virgin summits were the principal destinations of expeditions. Today, as in the Himalaya, many climbers go for new routes on already ascended mountains. This is easily explained by the fact that the lack of transportation in Greenland makes it very difficult to get to other areas than the well known. The following areas are shown on the map. West Greenland: Umanak (11 expeditions); South Greenland: Kap Farvel (17 expeditions); East Greenland: Angmagssalik (22 expeditions) and Scoresbysund, including the beautiful Stauning Alper (18 expeditions). The best thing about Greenland is that there is room for all kinds of mountaineering from grassy slopes to extreme ice and rock.
Permissions. Greenland is a part of Denmark, but in 1979 the Greenlanders obtained a special status, called Hjemmestyre, a sort of autonomous government. Since then, the most important governmental functions have gradually been transferred to the Greenlanders and, as a consequence, been moved from Copenhagen in Denmark to Nuuk (Godthåb) in Greenland. For the time being, permission for mountaineering in Greenland must still be obtained from the Danish Ministry for Greenland in Copenhagen. It is, however, expected that in a few years this administration will also be transferred to Greenland. Today, already, permission for the East Greenland National Park, where for instance the Stauning Alper are located, must be accepted by the Hjemmestyre before being granted by the Danish Ministry for Greenland. Application forms are requested from The Ministry for Greenland, Hausergade 3, DK-1128 Copenhagen K, Denmark
One should apply for permission at least six months before the expedition is scheduled to begin. Applications for the Stauning Alper must be filed at least twelve months ahead of the expedition. The permission will cover general mountaineering activities in the region applied for. Specific license for certain routes or summits is not required.
One of the conditions is likely to be a request for a guarantee of a rather large amount of money to cover possible rescue expenses. The Ministry for Greenland usually accepts a bank guarantee or an insurance policy for the amount. The size of the guarantee requested varies according to the character of the project and the remoteness of the destination. Another condition concerns radio equipment.
How to get to Greenland. Most travelers to Greenland by airplane from Copenhagen go to Søndre Strømfjord or Narssarssuaq. Another possibility is to fly to Godthåb from Frobisher Bay in Canada. Many expeditions set out from Akureyri in Iceland if their destination is the east coast. Information and travel arrangements can be obtained through Grønlands Rejsebureau (Greenland Travel Bureau), Gammel Mønt 12, PO Box 130, DK-1004, Copenhagen K.
Local Transportation. From the airports in the towns mentioned above, local transportation must be by airplane, helicopter or boat as there are no roads between towns. This transportation is generally very expensive. Adding a small boat to the expedition equipment might prove useful, especially an inflatable boat. The last part of the way to the desired range is now often done by helicopter. The price for renting a helicopter amounts to D.kr. 20,000 per hour. Local airplane and helicopter transportation can be arranged with Grønlandsfly A/S (Greenlandair), PO Box 192, Gammel Mønt 12, DK-1004, Copenhagen K. On the east coast it might be a good idea to rent a Twin-Otter, a small plane carrying 1500 kilograms, including persons, (an expedition of 8 to 10 members with equipment) from Akureyri in Iceland at the price of D.kr. 55,000. The Icelandic Pilots are rather fearless and might be persuaded to land in areas without landing strips in Greenland. Using that means of transportation also offers the possibility of surveying the area by air and perhaps of airdrops. Boat transportation must be arranged with local fishermen, which means that it is difficult to fix until the expedition arrives in Greenland.
Maps. Maps in the scale of 1:250.000 and aerial photographs can be bought from The Royal Geodetic Institute, Rigsdagsgården 7, DK-1218 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Nautical charts, which may be of interest as they contain other details than the surface maps, can be bought from Søkortarkivet Farvnads-direktoratet, Esplanaden 19, DK-1263 Copenhagen K.
For naming mountains and other features in Greenland, as a rule only Greenlandic names may be used. (It is possible to obtain an exception to this rule.) Proposals for naming mountains may be sent to Stednavneudvalget, Royal Geodetic Institute, Rigsdagsgården 7, DK-1218, Copenhagen K.
References to climbs and expeditions. The following works are the most important summaries of expeditions and ascents up to now: expeditions before 1944 (Berge der Welt, Volume III, 1948); expeditions before 1966 (Berge der Welt, Volume XVI, 1966/7) by Erik Hoff; “Mountaineering in Greenland, 1967-1976” by Erik Hoff in American Alpine Journal, 1979, pages 125-152; expeditions from 1977-1981 (Österreichische Alpenzeitung, 1984) by Adi Mokrejs. Further attention is called to Montagne di Groenlandia by Mario Fantin, which was an attempt to give a complete exposition of mountaineering in Greenland before 1969. Another book is the 1971 Staunings Alps by Donald Bennet.
Expeditions and Climbs in Greenland from 1977 to 1986. This is a continuation of the work of Erik Hoff, published in the American Alpine Journal of 1979. It summarizes, to the extent that has been possible, the ascents which have taken place between 1977 and 1986. As was the case with Hoff’s list, the present one does not pretend to be complete. We have asked all expeditions that applied for mountaineering permissions to forward reports. Unfortunately a number have not replied. Also, ordinary tourism in Greenland does not require a visa. Expeditions unaware that permission is required for mountaineering may have escaped police control and made ascents we have not heard of.
We have recently taken over the large archive which Erik Hoff industriously built up over several decades, containing reports, photos, sketches, maps, etc. From that archive and from our own knowledge, we shall be glad to supply potential expeditions with mountaineering information on Greenland. We trust that future expeditions will be aware of the importance of keeping accurate records and will report back to us and thus continue the great work of Erik Hoff. Inquiries for information and reports should be sent to Dansk Bjergklub Expedition Committee, Dolfi Rotovnik, Snemandsvej la, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.
Abbreviations. In the following section, certain reference works appear repeatedly. We have used the following abbreviations. AAJ (American Alpine Journal); AJ (Alpine Journal); Jahr (Alpenvereins Jahrbuch); M&A (Montagne et Alpinisme); CISDAE (Centro Italiano Studio Documentazione Alpinismo Extraeuropeo); FEM (Federación Española de Montaña); RCAI (Rivista del Club Alpino Italiano).
1. Scottish expedition to Northeast Greenland (University of Dundee). Members: C. Roger Allen (leader) et al. 3rd ascent of Petermann Bjerg (2940 meters) from Franz Joseph Fjord, northwest of Mestersvig. Private information.
2. German expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Schwäbische Grönland Kundfahrt). Members: Winfried Baumgärtner (leader), Ulrich Bayer, Dieter Brodmann, Rudi Laich, Dietrich Schlotz, Wilhelm Schlotz, Wolfgang Vögele. 17 ascents (16 first ascents) in the area of Borgbjerg Glacier of the southern Stauning Alper. AAJ, 1979, p. 222; Jahr 1978, p. 168; general report.
3. German expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper. Members: Karl Maria Herrligkoffer (leader), Helmut Böhme, Leo Glasl, Schorsch Kirner, Uli Bayer, Fritz Aumann, Doris Kustermann. 9 first ascents in Klosterbjerge, Alpefjord. Bergsteiger, 1978, n° 2, p. 92.
4. French expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Fédération Française de la Montagne). Members: André Zagdoun (leader) et al. 5 ascents (4 first ascents) in the central Stauning Alper. AAJ, 1978, p. 554; general report.
5.British expedition to West Greenland, Upernivik Island and Akuliaruseq Peninsula. (University of St. Andrews). Members: Philip Gribbon (leader), David Meldrum, Sandy Briggs, Adam Arnott, John Thurman, Colin Matheson, Peter Gribbon. 12 ascents, (3 first ascents). AAJ, 1978, p. 554; general report.
6. French expedition to South Greenland, Tasermiut Fjord (Club Alpin Français). Members: Marceau Agier (leader), Yves Payrau, Claude Vigier et al. Ascent of Suikarsuak Tower’s northwest face. AAJ, 1979, p. 220.
7. Austrian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area. Members: Rupert Schitter, Hermann Höpflinger, Heinz Gotschy, Johann Trexl, Peter Wintersteller, Franz Zehetner. Several ascents (1 first ascent) in the Karale Glacier area. Private information.
1.German expedition to South Greenland, Tasermiut Fjord (Nürnberger Grönland Expedition). Members: Herbert Voll (leader), Peter Bauernfeind, Thomas Handwerger, Gerald and Rainer Pichl, Klaus Stüllein, Helmut Unkold, Werner Zürsmeister, Margrit Stünzendörfer. First ascent of Ulamertorssuaq west face (850 meters, IV + to VI-); attempted route on Ketil. Jahr, 1979, p. 232; Mitteilingen der DAV Sektion Nürnberg, n° 3, September 1978.
2. Italian expedition to West Greenland, Evigheds Fjord, Sukkertoppen area (Scoiattoli Cortina). Members: Franco Dallago (leader), Giusto Zardini, Giuseppe Gomirato. 4 ascents between 800 and 1650 meters. C1SDAE.
3. Italian expedition to East Greenland, Sermiligaq Fjord, Angmagssalik area (Club Alpino Italiano). Members: Desiderio Dottori (leader), Jesi and Claudio Giudici. Ascents between Sermiligaq and Sangmilik Fjords. Private information.
4.Spanish expedition to East Greenland, Tasissarssik Fjord, Angmagssalik area (Club Montañeros Celtas de Vigo). Members: Constancio Veiga González (leader), Santiago Suárez Alonso, Antonio Dourado Iglesias, José Ramón Melón Iglesias, Albino Quinteiro Mora. 6 ascents (3 first ascents) in the Trillingerne area and second ascent of Storebror. AAJ, 1979, p. 222; Peñalara, 1978, p. 174.
5. British expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Army Mountaineering Association). Members: P.D. Breadmore (leader), R. Churcher, M.A.
Rough, L. Townsend, W. Parker, A. Leggat. 16 ascents (14 first ascents) between 320 meters and 2285 meters in southernmost Stauning Alper, Eastern Renland, Bjørneøer and the head of Vestfjord. General report.
6. Spanish expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Centro Excursionista de Catalunya). Members: Enric Font, J.G. Hernández, F.X. Gregori, J.M. Iglesias. 11 ascents in the area between Fangst Hytte Glacier and Sedgewick Glacier. FEM, 1978, p. 180.
7. Spanish expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Club Alpino de Gijón). Members: Gonzalo Suárez Pomeda (leader), Pedro García Torano, Aurelio Alvarez Riera, Julio Bousono Paneda, Luis Antonio Ruiz Alonso, Félix Mejica Pérez. 35 ascents between Qiugorssuaq and Ikasaulaq Fjords. FEM, 1978, p. 195; general report.
8. Spanish expedition to West Greenland, Sukkertoppen area, Evigheds Fjord (Sociedad Excursionista, Club Alpino Maliciosa). Members: José Luis García (leader), Luis López Fernández, Pedro Nicolás Martínez, Arturo Romero Palacios, José Luis García Sánchez, Margarita Mayo Arlanzón, Juan Palacios Antón, Ramón Jaudenes-Atauri, Eduardo Martínez. 8 ascents from Base Camp in Kangiussaq. FEM, 1978, p. 178; Private information with map.
9. Spanish expedition to West Greenland, Sukkertoppen area, Evigheds Fjord (Agrupació Excursionista de Granollers). 11 members. 12 ascents. Information from Club Alpino de España.
10. Spanish expedition to West Greenland, Holsteinsborg area (Club Camprodón). Members: Manuel Bunsola, J. Busquets, P. Masferrer, J. Mercer, V. Aris. 14 ascents. Private information.
11. French expedition to South Greenland, Narssarssuaq area. Members: Jacques Rouillard (leader), Jean-Bernard Givet, Bernard Brigai, Robert Fargeas, Jean Macian, Gilbert Selz, Christian Meynier, Monique Larmoyer. First ascent of P 1881 northwest of Narssarssuaq. AAJ, 1979, p. 222; Private information with map.
12. Yugoslavian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Planinska Zveza Slovenije). Members: Janez Bizjak (leader), Renato Vrecer, Damian Meško, Marco Lenarcic, Matevž Lenarcic, Bojan Pajk, Vili Pistotnik. Rudi Pušnik. Andrej Pušnik, Bojan Šprogar. 26 ascents (7 first ascents) between 16 September Glacier and Glacier de France of 1540 to 2220 meters. AAJ, 1979, p. 221.
13. German expedition to West Greenland, Sukkertoppen area, Evigheds Fjord (Göppinger Grönland Expedition). Members: Alexander Schlee (leader), M. Albanus, F. Bässler, G. Vlach, I. Dölker, O. Dorka. R. Frick, M. Haase, R. Hauff, R. Niebling, U. Strom, P. Meier, H. Schlee. 38 ascents (16 first ascents) between 1600 and 2140 meters. AAJ, 1979, p. 223; Jahr, 1979, p. 231.
14. Austrian expedition to South Greenland, Tasermiut Fjord (Tiroler Grönland Expedition). Members: Gernot Pollhammer (leader) et al. 6 first ascents. Ulamertorssuaq northwest face (1100 meters, V/VI, A2). Jahr, 1979, p. 229.
15. Japanese solo traverse of Greenland from north to south. Member: Naomi Uemura. AAJ, 1979, p. 224.
16.French expedition to Southeast Greenland, Lindenow Fjord. Members: Jean Claude Marmier (leader) and 10 members. Several first ascents and new routes, among others Apostelens Tommelfinger’s southeast wall (1300 meters, VI). AAJ, 1979, p. 219; M&A, 1978, n° 4, p. 446.
1. French expedition to South Greenland, Narssarssuaq area. Members: Jacques Rouillard (leader) with 17 persons. Second ascent of P 1881, first ascent of P 1713 in Johan Dahl Land. AAJ, 1980, p. 569; private information with map.
2. British expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper and Lyell Land (Army Ordnance Corps). Members: John Muston (leader) with 8 persons. Ascents of Argandhorn, Snehaetten and Jeannet Bjerg in Lyell Land and Harlech in Stauning Alper. General report.
3. Swedish expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Svensk Klatre Forbund). Members: Lars Gören Johanson (leader) et al. Fourth ascent of Mont Forel, ski from Kungmiut (20 kms). Private information.
4. German expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Deutscher Alpenverein Sektion Goslar). Members: Ulrich Schum (leader), Theo Hilz, Wilhem Huber, Klaus Suess. Fifth ascent of Mont Forel (first of the south face), 9 first ascents up to 3100 meters. Helicopter to Base Camp and then with skis. Jahr, 1980, p. 104; AAJ, 1980, p. 569.
5. Czechoslovakian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area. Members: Sylva Talla (leader), Peter Pavlak, Jaroslava Tallova. Sixth ascent of Mont Forel by Swiss route and first female ascent. Ski from Tasilaq Fjord. Private information.
6. Italian expedition to West Greenland, Sukkertoppen area, Evigheds Fjord (Scoiattoli Cortina). Members: Modesto Alvera, Orazio Mollonto, Armando Dallago, Diego Ghedina, Bruno Pompanin Dimat. 5 first ascents up to 1400 meters. RCAI, 1980, n° 5/6, p. 216; CISDAE.
7. Italian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area. Members: Sergio Maccio (leader), Antonio Falconara, Enzo and Fabio Bianchini, Giovanni Rupi, Enrico Valentini. Ascents north of Sangmilik Fjord and northeast of Sermiligaq village. CISDAE.
1. Yugoslavian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Mountain Club Kozjak, Maribor, Slovenia). Members: Inko Bajde (leader), Franci Gselman, Boro Jerebebek, Zvone Koklic, Adi Lep, Štefan Senekovic, Ivan Šturm, Ivo Veberic, Janez Bizjak, Bojan Pajk. 55 ascents (13 first ascents) in the area east of the Midgaard Glacier. AAJ, 1981, p. 205; Jahr, 1980, p. 157.
2.British expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper and Nathorst Land. Members: H.W. Beaves (leader) and 7 persons. Several ascents, including first ascents. Private information.
3. North Irish expedition to South Greenland, Prins Christian IV Island (Queens University, Belfast). Members: Alistair Acheson (leader) and 6 persons. 20 first ascents. AJ, 1982, P 244.
4. British expedition to East Greenland, Hochstetter Forland. Members; Geoffrey Halliday (leader), A.J. Muston, Tim King, Dave O’Neil, Mandy Wilson. Ascents of Wildspitze and Matterhorn in Barth Bjerge. AJ, 1982, p. 244.
5. British expedition to East Greenland, Knud Rasmussen Glacier, Angmagssalik area. Members: Douglas Anderson (leader), William Jeffrey, Andrea Mountain, Dick Pert, Bob Dunken, Ian Carr, Rebecca Upham, Noel Williams. 4 ascents. AAJ, 1981, p. 204.
6. Italian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area. Members: Agostini Gentilini (leader), Rina Gentilini, Piero Favalli, Gianni Paisnetti, Tullio Rocco, Massimo Sanavio. 9 ascents (3 first ascents) in the Gobi Glacier area. Jahr, 1981, p. 157; CISDAE.
7.Swiss expedition to South Greenland, Kap Farvel area. Members: Irene and Wolfgang Freudenreich. 1 ascent (P 1511.) Private information.
1. Italian expedition to West Greenland, Upernivik Island (Club Alpino Italiano, Bardonecchia). Members: Giuseppe Agnolotti (leader), Giorgio Pettigiani. New route on Palup Peak (2101 meters). AAJ, 1982, p. 167; CISDAE.
2. French expedition to Narssarssuaq area. Members: Jacques Rouillard (leader) and 15 persons. 7 ascents some 25 kms southeast of Narssarssuaq. Private information with map.
3. Swiss expedition to Tasermiut Fjord. Members: Beat Streich (leader), Beni Tscherrig, Egon Feller, Bruno Pfaffen, Bruno Leiggener. Difficult climbs in Tasermiut area. 5 new routes. Private information.
4. Spanish expedition to West Greenland, Sukkertoppen area (expedition from Catalonia). Members: Monso i Molas (leader) et al. 5 ascents in the area north of Manitsup Sermilia Fjord. Private information.
5. Italian expedition to West Greenland, Akuliaruseq Peninsula, north of Upernivik Island (Club Alpino Italiano). Members: Lodovico Gaetani, (leader), Franco Alletto, Giuseppe Cazzaniga, Giancarlo Delzotto, Bruno Gabaglio, Fabio and Mariola Masciadri. 2 ascents, first ascent of Nanupniaqua (2200 meters). Lo Scarpone, October 1, 1981; AAJ, 1982, p. 167; CISDAE; RCAI, 1982, 5/6; private information.
6. Yugoslavian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Slovenian Alpine Clubs Domžale and Mengeš). Members: Stane Klemenc (leader), Janko Kos, Matjaž and Borut Veselko, Franci Vrankar, Miro Štebe, Marko Grad. 25 ascents with many difficult climbs 180 kms northeast of Angmagssalik in Kronprins Frederiks Bjerge. Third and fourth highest ascents (3355 and 3250 meters) in Greenland. AAJ, 1982, p. 168; Jahr, 1982-3, p. 154.
7. Italian expedition to West Greenland, Sukkertoppen area, Evigheds Fjord (Club Alpino Italiano, Albino). Members: Claudio Allegrini, Aurelio Bortolotti, Benito Cabrini, Renato Saffi, Lorenzo Carrara, Ubaldo Cortinovis, Antonio Gamba, Antonio Pondi, Dinuccia Zanetti, Ricardo Zanetti. Lo Scarpone, March 16, 1982; CISDAE.
8. Swiss expedition to West Greenland, Umanak and Upernivik (Akademischer Alpen Club, Bern). Members: Jürg Müller (leader), Thomas Kopp, Werner Munter, Hans Stämpeli, Beat Geissbühler, Margrit Munter, Johannes Walther, Fritz Willen. Second ascent of southeast ridge of Umanaktinde (1200 meters); ascents on Upernivik Island. Die Alpen, 1st Quarterly, 1982, p. 43.
9. Swiss expedition to West Greenland, Qioqe Peninsula, north of Umanak. Members: 15 persons. 4 first ascents up to 2120 meters. Die Alpen, 1st Quarterly, 1982, p. 43.
10.North Irish expedition to South Greenland, Kap Farvel area. Members: R.J. Finlay (leader) with three persons. 16 ascents (11 first ascents) on Pamiagduluk Island, south of Aupilagtoq village. Private information.
11. Italian expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper, Vikingebrae area. Members: Giuseppe Dionisi (leader) and eight persons. Ascents of Hjornespits, Nosketinde and Dansketinde. AAJ, 1982, p. 167.
1. Austrian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Österreichischer Himalaya Gesellschaft). Members: Bruno Klausbruckner (leader), Eduard Frosch, Ernst Gritzner, Werner Hölzl, Hans Höran, Leopold Krenn, Oswald Pletschko, Franz Pucher, Peter Schier, Helmut Wimmer. Seventh ascent of Mont Forel (new route on southwest ridge), 6 first ascents in the Femstjernen area, third ascent of Laupersbjerg. AAJ, 1983, p. 180; Österreichische Alpenzeitung, 1984, 7/8, p. 22.
2. French expedition to South Greenland, Narssarssuaq area (Club Alpin Français, Section de Belfort). Members: André Mairot, Marie-Dominique Beluche, Claudine Colin, Michel Deloye, Bernard Dieterich, Robert Hottinger, Christian Machet, Janine Mairot, Michel Paviet, Jean-Luc Riblet. 2 ascents between Narssarssuaq and Johan Dahl Land, Valhaltinde (1650 meters) and P 1960 in Kornerup Land. General report.
3. Austrian expedition to West Greenland, Wegener Peninsula north of Umanak (Voralberger Grönland Expedition). Members: Karl Malin (leader), Emil Galehr, Heinz Grasbon, Bernhard Grimm, Gerhard and Waltraud Huber, Helmut Koch. 11 ascents (10 first ascents), many of UIAA V difficulty. AAJ, 1983, p. 183; general report.
4. Italian expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Club Alpino Accademico Italiano, Torino). Giuseppe Dionisi (leader), Giuseppe Alasonatti, Eugenio Ferrero, Luciano Luria, Sergio Martini, Franco Ribetti, Mario Solero, Gian Luigi Vaccari. First ascent by north ridge of Norsketinde (2789 meters), first traverse of Dansketinde (2930 meters), highest peak in the Stauning Alper, and several other ascents. AAJ, 1983, p. 180; Jahr, 1982-3, p. 154; RCA1, 1983, February; general report.
5. Italian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Club Alpino Italiano, Veneto-Friulana). Members: Gianni Pais Becher (leader), Daniele Zandegiacomo, Ferruccio Svaluto Moreolo, Maurizio Dall’Olmo, Oliviero Di Zoldo, Gigi Dal Pozzo. 10 first ascents of from 1900 to 3270 meters between Kristians Glacier, Femstjerne and Glacier de France. AAJ, 1983, p. 180; RCAI, 1983, 3/4; C1SDAE.
6. Italian expedition to West Greenland, Akuliarueseq north of Upernivik Island (Club Alpino Italiano, Lanzo-Asso). Members: Graziano Bianchi (leader), Ginetto Mora, Giuseppe Colombo, Vittorio Duroni, Maco Cipriano, Lorenzo Spallino, Ambrogio Fogar. 5 first ascents between 1700 and 2100 meters. C1SDAE.
7. French expedition to South Greenland, Søndre Igaliko. Members: Jacques Rouillard (leader) et al. 3 ascents (P 1410, P 1370, P 1530). Private information with map.
8. German expedition to West Greenland, Umanak area (Deutscher Alpenverein, Sektion Lindau). Members: Walter Föger (leader) with 7 persons. 9 ascents (3 first ascents) on Qioqe Peninsula. Jahr, 1984, p. 164.
9. British expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area. Members: Cormac Higgs, Colin Wootton, Geoffrey Monaghan. Difficult climbs in Sermiligaq Fjord area 80 kms northeast of Angmagssalik. AAJ, 1983, p. 183.
1.Italian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Club Alpino Italiano, Ligure). Members: Gianni Fasciolo (leader), Anthony House, Marco and Enrico Chierici, Emma and Gianni Bisio, Paolo Gardino, Bruno Vian, Magda DeFerrari, Carlo Malerba, Mino Girelli, Rosana Pisoni, Camillo Cortemiglia, Bruno Messiga, Battista Piccardo. 10 ascents between 16 September, Karale and Knud Rasmussen Glaciers, the highest of which was 1780 meters. AAJ, 1984, p. 194; Jahr, 1985, p. 193.
2. French expedition to South Greenland, Søndre Igaliko. Members: Jacques Rouillard (leader) et al. 6 ascents up to 1650 meters; only Nutluartoq previously climbed. Private information with map.
3. British expedition to West Greenland, Søndre Strømfjord area (British Army expedition). Members: S. King (leader) with 10 persons. 16 ascents, several first ascents in Sukkertoppen Icecap area. General report with map.
4. British expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Salford University Mountaineering Club). Members: Gerry McCullough (leader) with 8 persons. 11 ascents (6 first ascents) in Berserkerbrae-Dunnottar Glacier area. First ascent of south face of Dunnottar. AJ, 1984, p. 188: private information.
5. French expedition to West Greenland, Umanak (Club Alpin Français, Grenoble). Members: Jean-Marie Delacroix (leader) et al. Ascent of West Pillar of Umanakfjeld. M&A, 1987, n° 1, p. 22.
6. Danish expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper. Members: Søren Eisenhard (leader), Gertrud Andersen, Ole Haug. Two attempts on Glamis and ascent of one minor summit east of Bersaerkerbrae. Bad weather. Dansk Bjergklub, 1983, p. 4.
1. Italian expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Club Alpino Italiano, Rome). Members: Sandro Pucci (leader), Franco Alletto, Paolo Caruso, Paolo D’Ugo, Mauro Dainese, Marcello Paterno, Giampaolo Picone, Marco Re. 10 first ascents at 72°N between 2000 and 2600 meters. AAJ, 1985, p. 220; RCAI, 1985, p. 310.
2. French expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Club Alpin Français, Section de Paris). Members: Marc Breuil (leader), Pascal Elleaume, Jacques Girand, Lubomir Krizenecky, Philippe Nonin, Bernard Odier. Traverse on skis west-to-east from Alpefjord to Mestersvig. 8 ascents, all over 2000 meters. General report.
3. International expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area. Members: Italians Gianni Pais Becher (leader), Antonio Colli, Mauro Corona, Maurizio Dall’Omo, Luciano de Grignis, Fabio Delisi, Lino Di Lenardo, Roberto Mazzilis, Cristina Smiderle, Luciano Zardini; Slovenes (Yugoslavia) Peter Podgornik, Janko Humar; Greenlanders Ane Kuitze, Ferdinan Maqe. 28 new routes, 20 first ascents in Kristian Glacier area of peaks between 2000 and 3240 meters; several ascents of UIAA V to VI difficulty. AAJ, 1985, p. 221; RCAI, 1985, p. 73.
4. Yugoslavian expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Slovenian Zgornje Savinjska Mountaineering Section). Members: Ludvig Petek, Ana Laznik, Marjana Skornšek. 25 ascents (18 first ascents) north of Karale Glacier. General report.
5. British expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area (Eagle Ski Club). Members: Derek Fordham (leader), Graham Elson, Michael Esten, Rupert Hoare, David Waldron. Two attempts on Mont Forel abandoned 200 and 300 meters below summit due to high winds and bad snow conditions. AAJ, 1985, p. 220; general report.
6. British expedition to West Greenland, Søndre Strømfjord area (Military expedition). Members: A.J. Muston (leader) with 10 persons. Several ascents between Søndre Strømfjord and Itivdleq Fjord. General report.
7. French expedition to West Greenland, Søndre Strømfjord area. Members: Jacques Rouillard (leader) et al. 3 ascents south of Itivdleq Fjord. Private information with map.
8. Italian expedition to West Greenland, Umanak area (Club Alpino Italiano, Rieti). Members; Alberto Bianchetti (leader), Enrico Ferri, Eliano Pessa, Millesimi Arnaldo, Angelo Sebastiani, Roberto Antonucci, Franco Basso, Pietro Ratti, Rocco Venditti, Mario Sciarra. Ascent of Qilertinguit Tunuliet (2070 meters) and other peaks on Nugssuak Peninsula. Ascent of Umanak Tinde by new route. CISDAE.
9. Spanish expedition to South Greenland, Tasermiut Fjord (Catalan Expedition, Barcelona). Members: Martin Xavier, Nicolau Xavier, Emili Ortega, Jordi Verdaguer. First ascent of 1450-meter-high west face of Ketil (VI, A3). AAJ, 1986, p. 185.
10.Swiss expedition to South Greenland, Tasermiut Fjord. Members: M. Piola (leader), C. Dalphin, N. Schenkel, B. Watson. New route on west face of Ketil. Details missing. Vertical, 1984, n° 3.
11. Czechoslovakian east-west traverse from Johan Petersen Fjord to Søndre Strømfjord. Members: Vladimír Weigner, Jaroslav Pavilicek, Miroslav Jakes. AAJ, 1985, p. 223.
1. Belgian expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Club Alpin Belge). Members: Jacques Borlée (leader), Jean-Marc Piron, Daniel Caise, Gérard Miserique, Didier Dubosse, Philippe Soertaert, Jean-Pierre Deveaux. 3 ascents, first ascent of south face of Dunnottar (2450 meters). AAJ, 1986, p. 186.
2. British expedition to East Greenland, Stauning Alper (Liverpool Polytechnic I.M. Marsh College). Members: Michael Peckham (leader), David Huddart, Paul Potter, Adrian Pringle, Tom Saxlund, Steve Gebbels. 10 ascents (3 first ascents) in the region of Bersaerkerbrae and Dunnottar Glacier. AJ, 1986, p. 228.
3. Finnish expedition to East Greenland, Angmagssalik area. Members: Eino Putkonen (leader), Heikki Leinonen, Anne Kaitila. Attempt on Mont Forel frustrated by bad weather; only mountaineering on Angmagssalik Island. Private information.
4. Austrian expedition to West Greenland, Upernivik Island (Alpenverein Tirol and South Tirol-Italy). Members: Klaus Gogl (leader) with 16 persons. 25 ascents (5 first ascents) on Upernivik Island between 1020 and 2120 meters. Several climbs of UIAA V to VI difficulty. General report.
5. Spanish expedition to West Greenland, Sukkertoppen area, Evigheds Fjord (Unió Excursionista de Catalunya). Members: Jordi Colomar (leader), Josep Barrachina, Alex Alom, Jaume Real, Lluis López, Ramón Bramona, Francesc Sanahuja, Jordi Sans, Miquel Angel Martínez. 7 ascents; third ascent of Mount Atter (2190 meters) by new route, east ridge, highest peak in West Greenland. AAJ, 1986, p. 186. General report.
6. British expedition to East Greenland, Kejser Franz Joseph Fjord (Scottish Mountaineering Club). Members: Malcolm Slesser (leader), Iaian Smart, P. Sellers, P. Todd, R. Zeyen. Fourth ascent of Petermanns Bjerg (2940 meters) and two other ascents in the area, one of them a first. AAJ, 1987, p. 186.
1. German expedition to West Greenland, Sisermiut area (Deutscher Alpenverein, Sektion Siegburg). Members: Jochem Becker (leader), Erwin Diesler, Klaus Eiler, Michael Hagena, Beate Hasenjaeger, Axel Klier, Thomas Meier, Klaus Scherer. 6 first ascents in area 67°N, 63°W. Mitteilungen der Sektion Siegburg, March, 1986. Mitteilingen des Deutschen Alpenvereins, January, 1987.
2. British expedition to South Greenland, Kap Farvel area (Salford University). Members: Les Thurbull (leader), Andy Leslie, Rob Cooper, Martin Sluce, Stas Chobrzynski-Rawicz, Paul Hodkins, Brian Hull, Andy Greenwood. 16 first ascents and 4 second ascents on Kangerssuaq Qingordleq. General report.
3. British expedition to Northeast Greenland (Austrian Alpine Club, U.K. Section). Members: John Shrewsbury (leader), Mike Garrett, Margaret Graham, Malcolm Sales, Anne Wheatcroft, Chris Whitford. 4 first ascents of from 1120 to 1510 meters on Milne Island. AAJ, 1987, p. 187; general report.
4. French expedition to Northeast Greenland (Groupe de Montagne Chamalierois). Members: Bernard Thomas (leader), Christian Paour, Monique Thomas, Philippe Rousseau, Michel Thomas, Pierre Brajon, Brigitte Thomas, Christian Béal, Michel Quanty. First ascent of P 1831, the highest point in Strindberg Land at 73°42'N, 24°25'W. General Report.
5. Italian-Yugoslavian expedition to East Greenland, Ingolffjeld (2560 meters). Members: Italians Gianni Pais Becher (leader), Ferruccio Sveluto Moreolo, Pierantonio Zago, Sergio De Longhi, and Slovene Peter Podgornik. Attempt on 1500-meter-high north face of Ingolffjeld to 1030 meters. The peak lies 150 kms northeast of Angmagssalik. AAJ, 1987, p. 186.
Addition to Chronicle 1967-1976
Irish expedition to South Greenland, 1975. Members: David A. Welsh (leader), Joe Mulhall, David Mitchell, Alan Douglas, Paddy O’Brien, Roger Greene, Ray Finlay, Philip Holmes. 12 first ascents north of Augpilagtoq village. Private information.