AAC Publications - http://publications.americanalpineclub.org

Mountaineering in Antarctica

Mountaineering in Antarctica

Dee Molenaar, Robert A. Wharton, Jr., John Schutt

ALTHOUGH 98% of its surface is covered by ice, the Antarctic continent contains numerous mountain ranges that have been mapped both aerially and from the ground. The advent of satellite imagery has further substantiated the mapped areas of mountains, ice plateaus, and ice shelves. We will provide a general summary of the principal mountain ranges and discuss mountaineering achievements as recorded in the literature. Many ascents of peaks have been made by field scientists in the line of research, and many of these climbs will never be recorded in mountaineering literature. This summary, therefore, must be considered a “first draft” only. Hopefully, future efforts will result in a more comprehensive and definitive work.

The Mountains

This discussion will begin with the mountains near Oates Coast and proceed around Antarctica in a generally clockwise direction, with some mention of the highest and most significant peaks, and of the principal rock types forming the mountains, as interpreted from a geologic map published by the American Geographical Society in 1970. Most of the peak names and elevations given are those approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names and published by the National Science Foundation in 1980, as Publication NSF 81-5. However, a few names and elevations, especially in the Antarctic Peninsula, are not yet formally accepted.

The longest chain of peaks on the continent is the Transantarctic Mountains, which essentially divide the continent into two parts—East and West Antarctica. The Transantarctic Mountains, which include many named subranges, extend approximately 3200 km from Oates Coast in northern Victoria Land to Edith Ronne Land on the edge of the Ronne and Filchner Ice Shelves. Inland from Oates Coast is the Arctic Institute Range, composed principally of folded and metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Precambrian age, which form a line of nunataks rising above the margin of the polar plateau; the highest

This article is taken in part from the text accompanying Dee Molenaar’s pictorial map, McMurdo Sound Area, Antarctica: Historical and Scientific Gateway to the Frozen Continent.

point is Roberts Butte (2828m). Between this range and the coast of the Ross Sea are the Admiralty Mountains—also of metasedimentary rocks with some volcanics—which contain Mounts Minto (4165m), Sabine (3720m), and Her- schel (3335m). Southward are the geologically similar Prince Albert Mountains, through which several large glaciers flow from the polar plateau into the Ross Sea. The massive inactive volcano, Mount Melbourne (2730m) rises impressively a short distance from the Ross Sea coastline.

Probably the most accessible and most explored mountains on the continent are those seen across McMurdo Sound from McMurdo Station on Ross Island. These mountains include the spectacular Royal Society Range and several lower subranges, including those rising along the sides of the famous ice-free “Dry Valleys” (including the Asgard and Olympus Ranges). In aspect, the Royal Society Range resembles an “ice age” Canadian Rockies, being formed of horizontally layered, predominately light-colored sedimentary rocks, mostly sandstones of Devonian to Jurassic age, intruded by dark sills and dikes of dolerite (similar to basalt) of Jurassic age. The hightest peak in this range is Mount Lister (4025m).

Although not part of the Transantarctic Mountains, volcanic Ross Island— composed of the overlapping cones of four broad, basaltic volcanos of Cenozoic age—contains Mount Erebus (3794m), the largest and most active volcano in Antarctica. Erebus is usually visible with a steam plume rising from its summit crater, with winds carrying it off to the east or west. In October 1984, the volcano began a noticeable increase in its activity, including ejecting incandescent lava bombs to heights of more than 610 meters above the crater. Huge plumes of smoke were observed, along with black ash covering the upper slopes of the massive mountain.

South of Ross Island, and also of volcanic origin, are the large masses of Mounts Discovery (2680m) and Morning (2723m).

South of the Royal Society Range, the Transantarctic Mountains continue as horizontally layered sandstones and dolerite sills overlying isolated patches of granitic rocks. From north to south they include the Cook and Churchill Mountains, which are bisected by several large glaciers that flow from the polar plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf. Peaks in these ranges include Mounts Longhurst (2344m), McClintock (3609m), Wharton (2697m), and Albert Markham (3185m). To the south are the Queen Elizabeth Range, which contains Mount Markham (4350m), and the Queen Alexandra Range, containing Mount Kirkpatrick (4528m). Beyond is the mighty Beardmore Glacier, which provided the pathway toward the South Pole taken by Ernest Shackleton in his unsuccessful attempt in 1908 and by Robert Falcon Scott in his attaining the Pole in 1912, a trip from which his five-man party never returned. The Queen Maud Mountains, east of the Beardmore Glacier, comprise several subranges: the Commonwealth and Hughes Ranges, and the Bush, Prince Olav, Duncan, Will Hays, and La Gorce Mountains. The highest peak in the Queen Maud Mountains is Mount Kaplan (4230m) in the Hughes Range. Mount Fridtjof Nansen, a massive snow mountain in the Duncan Mountains, rises to 4070 meters above the Axel Heiberg Glacier, and was photographed by Roald Amundsen’s party on his successful trip to the South Pole in December 1911.

Beyond the Queen Maud Mountains, the Transantarctic Mountains become more deeply buried by ice and are exposed mostly as nunataks and less extensive subranges. These include the Horlick and Thiel Mountains, composed of intrusive granitic rocks, along with some coal-bearing sedimentary rocks. To the north are the outlying Ohio and Wisconsin Ranges and Whitmore Mountains. Beyond these, in Edith Ronne Land, the Shackleton Range, Pensacola and Theron Mountains, which are composed of sedimentary and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, mark the end of the Transantarctic Mountains.

Along the coasts of the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen Seas are numerous mountain ranges composed mostly of deformed and variably metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, with some granitic and volcanic rocks. These include the Ford and Hal Flood Ranges inland from the eastern part of the Ross Sea, with the highest point of the Hal Flood Range being Mount Berlin (3496m). Inland from the Amundsen Sea is the Executive Committee Range, comprising a series of large extinct volcanoes, the largest, Mount Sidley, rising to 4285 meters. Other ranges along the coasts of the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas include the Kohler Range and the Hudson and Jones Mountains.

The Antarctic Peninsula and its many offshore islands have extremely rugged mountainous terrain, with many peaks and subranges within view of the various stations of several nationalities on the peninsula and islands. Although lower than the Transantarctic Mountains, they form an impressive array of sharp peaks composed of metamorphosed sedimentary and granitic rocks. The highest peak on the peninsula is the massive Mount Jackson (3450m), near the Richard Black Coast.

Inland from the southern edge of the Ronne Ice Shelf are the Ellsworth Mountains; these include the Sentinel and Heritage Ranges, which are composed of metasedimentary rocks. The highest peak is Vinson Massif (5139m) in the Sentinel Range. This massive snow mountain is the highest point on the Antarctic continent, and, with few technical difficulties, it has been the objective of several climbing expeditions in the past 20 years. The research outpost closest to this area is Siple Station (USA) in Ellsworth Land.

South of the northeastern part of the Weddell Sea and extending eastward along the Princess Martha Coast are several isolated mountain ranges. From west to east these include the Heimefront Range, Kottas and Kraul Mountains, the Kirwan Escarpment, Borg Massif, and the Muhlig-Hofmann Mountains, along with several subranges, composed of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The highest point in this group is Habermehl Peak (2945m) in the Muhlig-Hofmann Mountains. Near the Princess Astrid Coast are the Wohlthat Mountains, and near the Princess Ragnhild Coast are the Sor Rondane, Belgica, and Queen Fabiola (Yamato) Mountains. The ranges are composed of granitic and gneissic rocks. The first meteorites found in Antarctica were collected in the latter two areas. Isachsen Mountain in the Sor Rondane Mountains rises to 3425

meters.

Several mountain ranges of granitic, gneissic, and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks break the icy surface of Enderby Land near the coast and include the Scott, Tula, and Napier Mountains, and near Mawson Station (Australia) are the Framnes and Hansen Mountains. On the inland margins of the Amery Ice Shelf are the Prince Charles Mountains, composed of gneissic and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks; Mount Menzies rises to 3355 meters. Eastward beyond this, Wilkes Land contains no significant mountains until the Transantarctic Mountains are reached near Oates Coast.

Mountaineering Endeavors

The climbing of mountains on the frozen continent “for pure enjoyment” has seldom become a high-priority goal among the world’s alpinists, nor an activity encouraged by most of the governments that operate scientific programs in the Antarctic. This has been due to both the extremely harsh environment and the complex and costly logistics problems involved in transporting climbers to the continent and the base of their objectives and in performing possible search and rescue operations.

During the “heroic era” only three serious mountaineering efforts seem to have been recorded. These included ascents of peaks on Booth (initially “Wandel”) and Wienke Islands off the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, by members of the French Chacot Expedition in 1904-1905, and two climbs of Mount Erebus, the first in March 1908 by members of Shackleton’s Nimrod Expedition, and the second by members of Scott’s Terra Nova Expedition in December 1911 (while Scott was en route to the Pole).

A knowledge of the many peaks and ranges scattered over Antarctica was sparse prior to World War II. As expressed succinctly in an article by Henry S. Hall, Jr., in the 1940 American Alpine Journal (AAJ): “The latest maps of Antarctica do not confirm earlier reports of peaks almost 15,000 feet (4570m) high. Only a small portion of the Antarctic continent is yet explored.” By 1946 only a little more was reported in the AAJ: various accounts indicated that Mount Fridtjof Nansen rose to a height of about 4016 meters, and a Mount Kilpatrick was about 4150 meters. Mount Siple had been discovered, named and given an estimated elevation of close to 4570 meters; its height was later lowered to 3110m. Mount Bush was a gigantic peak of 4570 meters, and peaks of over 3660 meters were seen from the air in the southern part of Palmer Peninsula, at roughly 65BW,73BS.

Well-documented in the book by Shackleton (1909), the rigorous pioneering climb of Mount Erebus required six days and included problems of extreme cold and high winds. The party included T.W.E. David as leader, Douglas Mawson, A.F. MacKay, J.B. Adams, E.S. Marshall, and Sir Philip Brocklehurst. They left Cape Royds on March 5, 1908, hauling a three-meter sledge that carried 1230 pounds of supplies. Considerable hard ice was encountered before they made their first camp at about 820 meters and 11 kilometers from the hut. Here they left their sledge as a supply depot. On the third day a fierce blizzard and blowing snow made travel extremely hazardous, and several slips down the steep slopes were experienced, but fortunately all were stopped without injuries. They had great difficulty in getting into their cumbersome sleeping bags during the wind blasts. On March 9 the weather improved and they worked their way to the crater area, being forced where possible onto rocky ridges to avoid the steep icy slopes. Brocklehurst remained at the highest camp near the crater to ease the pain of badly frostbitten toes while, on March 10, the party continued to the highest point on the crater rim. After collecting specimens of pumice, feldspar and sulfur, the party descended the steep upper slopes to their camp. There they spent a final night before returning to the Cape Royds hut the next day, where they were met by Shackleton and a champagne celebration of their feat. A few days later Brocklehurst had one big toe amputated with the aid of chloroform.

After World War II a resurgent interest in mountaineering in the Antarctic resulted in some climbs in January 1948 by members of the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition. Several ascents of coastal peaks in the Neny Fjord area included The Spire and Neny Matterhorn. Subsequently, other expeditions, mostly from Argentina and Chile, which are in relatively close proximity to the mountains of the north-jutting Antarctic Peninsula, included mountaineering among their objectives. In 1958 an Argentine party at General Belgrano Base off the Weddell Sea recorded ascents of several small peaks and nunataks, one involving a 410-meter ice wall at the edge of the continent.

The first major expedition to have climbing as its principal objective was the American Antarctic Mountaineering Expedition of 1966-1967. The 10-man team of alpine veterans from across the U.S., led by Nicholas Clinch, was aiming for the summit of 5139-meter Vinson Massif in the Sentinel Range, the highest point in Antarctica. The team achieved considerably more: during the 26-day period of December 18, 1966 to January 12, 1967, various members of the party made the first ascents of six peaks, including the four highest on the Antarctic continent.

The concentrated climbing of the American team was a rarity among government-supported expeditions, but not the last of its kind. Other nations have since fielded parties that included mountain exploration among their principal purposes. In 1967 an Argentine expedition made the first ascents of several peaks on Amberer Island in the Palmer Peninsula area, and in 1968 a New Zealand group headed by Sir Edmund Hillary placed several members atop 3335-meter Mount Herschel in the Cape Hallett area of northern Victoria Land. New Zealand and Japan have both included mountaineering objectives among their scientific research projects.

Perhaps the most audacious mountaineering effort was that of the “Seven Summits Odyssey” which climbed Vinson Massif in 1983 as part of a nearly completed effort to stand on the highest points of all seven continents within a 12-month period. The multinational party was composed of D. Bass, C. Bonington, T. Maedo, S. Marts, Y. Miura, R. Ridgeway, and F. Wells. The party succeeded in making the third and fourth ascents of the mountain on November 23 and 30. In doing so, at least Bass and Wells had nearly accomplished the seven-summits objective; they failed only to the extent of not overcoming the final few hundred meters of Mount Everest a few months earlier.

In the McMurdo Sound area the most active mountaineer-scientists have been the New Zealanders. During the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, scientists stationed at Scott Base made about 40 ascents in the Transantarctic Mountains of peaks varying in heights between 914 and 3048 meters. Most of the climbs involved few technical difficulties, but all offered excellent viewpoints. However, two major climbs were made. In February of 1957, B. Gunn, A. Heime, and G. Warren ascended Mount Harms worth (2765m) in the Worcester Range west of the Skelton Glacier. On January 26, 1958, Gunn and F. R. Brooke climbed Mount Huggins (3735m) in the Royal Society Range. They chose the quickest route via the northwest flank because they had to leave their dog teams unattended at their Base Camp. They surprisingly encountered a windless area of soft, deep snow, where hard, wind-blown snow is usual— “the conditions were those of the Alps in midwinter.”

According to F. R. Brooke in the 1958 New Zealand Alpine Journal (NZAJ), “Snow conditions in this part of Antarctica are usually excellent, with hard, wind-blown snow, perfect for crampons, being usual. I never saw any sign of snow avalanches. Near the plateau edge it is usually too cold for difficult rock climbing (gloves being necessary all the time), but I did enjoy one afternoon’s rock climbing at about 6000 feet (1829m) near the plateau when it was amply warm enough to do without gloves or anorak. Lower down and nearer the coast it should be possible to do good rock climbing in late December and January, the warmest period. There are a number of shapely rock peaks, generally of Beacon Sandstone, bordering the Taylor Glacier, and a few miles to the north, in north Wright Valley, are some strange rock towers. Any of these peaks may prove difficult to climb, though they are unlikely to give good free climbing as the sandstone tends to be either sheer and holdless or easy. Undoubtedly the most attractive region for a mountaineer near McMurdo Sound is the eastern side of the Royal Society Range. The Blue Glacier gives easy access to the northern half of this mountain scarp which is miles in extent and about 8000 feet (2438m) high from glacier to summit.”

The “Kiwis” have since made a number of exploratory trips into the Royal Society Range from Scott Base via the Blue and Emmanuel Glaciers, both by dog-hauled sledges and motor toboggans. Some of these journeys have culminated in ascents of several of the highest summits: Mounts Lister (4025m), Hooker (3800+ m), and Rucker (3816m), Punta Giulia (3650m), and Salient (3550m) and Bishop (3460m) Peaks. During a seven-day period in early December of 1976, G. Ball and the great Italian mountaineer Walter Bonatti made first ascents of Hooker, Punta Giulia (named for Bonatti’s wife), Rucker, and the Twins, all by an approach up the Emmanuel Glacier.

In the immediate vicinity of the McMurdo Station-Scott Base complex there are no peaks requiring technical mountain skills. However, the ever-present possibility of rapidly deteriorating weather, including high winds, fog, or blizzards across slopes that are frequently hard ice, demands extreme caution of those hiking to various viewpoints. Mount Erebus itself is difficult of access from the McMurdo complex, both by distance and the hazardous nature of the glacier approaches; virtually all visits to the volcano are served by helicopter transport. The highly sensitive problems of costly transportation, and other logistical support in the event of search and rescue operations in the harsh Antarctic environment, have placed firm restrictions on climbing Mount Erebus without scientific purpose.

With the few exceptions noted above, mountaineering in Antarctica has been mostly in the line of scientific inquiry. Of course, many scientists heading for the great southern continent already have an affinity for mountains and for what “lies beyond the horizon.” To them it has been a labor of love to scramble high on the hills above field camps to examine geologic structures and collect rock samples, or search the higher snow and ice fields and rock outcrops for isolated populations of algae or lichens. Doubtless many mountain ascents in Antarctica have been accomplished in the interest of science and without fanfare, and many climbs will never be formally recorded for posterity by field scientists.

References

Amundsen, Roald, 1976 (reprint from 1913), The South Pole: John Murray, London (1913); Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., New York (1976), vol. 1, 392 p., vol. 2, 449 p.

American Geographical Society, 1970, Geologic Map of Antarctica: New York, Plate XX, Folio 12, Antarctic Map Folio Series.

Herbert, Wally, 1969, World of men—explorations in Antarctica: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, 232 p.

Neider, Charles, 1974, Edge of the world—Ross Island, Antarctica: Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, New York, 461 p.

Shackleton, E.H., 1909, The heart of the Antarctic: J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Vol. 1,372 p., Vol. 2, 419 p.

U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1980, Geographic names of the Antarctic: National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., Publication NSF 81-5, 959 p

SUMMARY OF MOUNTAIN ASCENTS IN ANTARCTICA

Year

Date

Peak

Party

Reference



ADMIRALTY MOUNTAINS







1968

10/26

Mt. Herschel (3335m)

M. Gill, B. Jenkinson

AAJ 1969, p. 469-470





10/27

"

P. Strang, M.R. White

"



ROYAL SOCIETY RANGE







1958

1/26

Mt. Huggins (3735m; Trench Gl.)

F.R. Brooke, B. Gunn

NZAJ No. 45, p. 310















1962

12/23

Mt. Lister (4025m; Emmanuel Gl. & N Ridge)

B. Gunn, J.G. Wilson

NZAJ No. 50, p. 62















1969

1/7

Two unnamed peaks (2000 + m each), at 78°12'30"S, 162°55' W; 78°12'30" S, 163°W

J. Halfpenny

AAJ 1970, p. 200















1976

12/3

Mt. Hooker (3800 + m; Emmanuel Gl.)

G. Ball, W. Bonatti

AAJ 1977, p. 284

















12/4

Punta Giulia (3650m; Emmanuel Gl.)

" "

"

















12/7

Mt. Rucker (3816m;

"

"





12/9

The Twins (Emmanuel Gl.)

" "

"



1979

Dec

Punta Giulia (3650m; E Ridge)

A. Daly, C. Monteath

H. Logan (pers. comm.)





Dec

Mt. Hooker (3800 + m; E Ridge)

" "

"



McMURDO “DRY VALLEYS” AREA







1957

12/4

Mt. Brooke (2675m)

F.R. Brooke, M.H. Douglas

"



1959

2/1

West Beacon (2420m)

E.B. Fitzgerald, H.J. Harrington,

NZAJ No. 46, p. 39









I.G. Speden





1962

Dec

Round Mtn. (2308m) Northwest

B. Gunn, J.G. Wilson

NZAJ (1963), p. 59-65







Mtn. (2230m), Finger Mtn.











(1950m), Terra Cotta (2000m)







1971

Jan

Obelisk Mtn. (2200m; S Ridge)

G. Baker, T. Chinn, A. Eskrick

NZAJ No. 1, p. 63



1974

Dec

" (W Face)

C. Monteath, I. Piussi

H. Logan (pers. comm.)



1978

Nov

" (E Face)

C. Monteath, R. Millington

"



1981

Nov

Mt. Dido (2070m)

L. Main, R. Millington

"





ROSS ISLAND









1908

3/10

Mt. Erebus (3795m; from west)

T.W.E. David, A.F. MacKay, E.S. Marshall, D. Mawson (Sir Philip Brocklehurst not to highest point due to frostbitten toes)

Shackleton (1909)



1959

1/5

" (from south)

A.C. Beck, J. Harrison, W. Romanes

NZAJ (1959), p. 34-36



1959

1/6

Mt. Terror (3230m)

B.N. Alexander. M.R. White, J.G. Wilson

NZAJ No. 46, p. 39



MISCELLANEOUS PEAKS BEYOND McMURDO SOUND AREA





1902

2/19

White Island (northerly point at 2700 ± m)

Members of Scott’s expedition

Scott (1929)



1903

—

Brown Peninsula (2750m)

"

""



1957

2/9

Mt. Harmsworth (2765m)

B. Gunn, A. Heine, G. Warren

NZAJ No. 44



1958

12/24

Mt. Discovery (2680m)

H.J. Harrington, E.B. Fitzgerald, J. Harrison

NZAJ No. 46, p. 39



QUEEN MAUD MOUNTAINS







1908

3/3

Mt. Hope (835m)

Shackleton’s party

Shackleton (1909)



1911 or

1912

Mt. Betty (500 + m)

Amundsen’s party

Amundsen (1913)



ANTARCTIC PENINSULA







1904

11/10

Unnamed peak on Wandel Island (now Booth Island)

P. Dayne, M. Gourdon

Geographica Journal Vol. XXVI, Nov. 1905



1905

Feb

Savoia Pk. (“pic Duc des Abruzzes’ 1415m)

Wiencke Island

P. Dayne, J. Jacet





1948

Jan

The Spire and Neny Matterhorn (1125 + m) Neny Fjord area

R. Butson, R. Dotson, F. Eliot, W.R. Latady, K. Walton

AAJ 1949, p. 234-237



1957

Jan

Mt. Johnston (1770m?)

M.B. Bayley and party

Herbert (1968)



1958

11/28

Pantera Nunatak, near General Belgrano Base

D. Bertoncelj, C. Lisignol, C.O. Mejias

AAJ 1960, p. 163



1962

1/1

Mt. Fridtjof Nansen (4070m)

W. Herbert, V. McGregor, P. Ordway, K. Pain

Herbert (1968)



1962

1/24

Mt. Englestad (2740m)

P. Otway, K. Pain

"



1962

1/26

Bamum Pk.

(not sure summit reached)

"

"



1965-6 Dec-Jan

Mts. Becker. Berger. Boyer,

T. Laudon and others

AAJ 1979, p. 225







Matheson, in Merrick Mtns.,











and Mts. Hirman, Neuner in











Behrendt Mtns., Orville Coast







1967

2/5

Monte Francés main summit (2804m), Graham Land

M. Donovan, J.L. Fonrouge

AAJ 1968, p. 231





1967

–

Cerro Verde (1300m), Mt. Barry

M. Donovan. J.L. Fonrouge.

"







(910m) Amberer Island, Palmer Peninsula

A. Frageiro, J.R. Luque, I. Palma





1972

Nov

Mt. Kane (W Face. N Ridge, NW Spur traverse),

K. Kellogg. W.R. Vennum

AAJ 1973, p. 505







Playfair Mtns., Lassiter Coast









12/11

Mt. Barkow (1390m), SW Dana Mtns., Lassiter Coast

P. Rowley







12/21

Mt. Fell (SW-NE traverse),

K. Kellogg. W.R. Vennum

"





12/24

Mt. High (W side, W-E traverse)

K. Kellogg

""





12/29

Ferguson Nunataks (W Peak, E Ridge), Lassiter Mtns.

W.R. Vennum

"



1973

1/1

Mt. Axworthy (N Ridge), Dana Mtns.

"

"



1977

11/7

Mt. Edward (NW Ridge)

P. Carrara, W.R. Vennum

AAJ 1979, p. 225





11/26

Novocin Pk. (N Ridge)

P. Carrara, K. Kellogg







12/5

Mt. Leek (N-S traverse)

K. Kellogg, W.R. Vennum

"





12/6

Mt. Dewe (N. Ridge)

"

"





12/10

Mt. Jenkins (1705m; N Ridge)

T. Laudon, W.R. Vennum

"





12/23

Hagerty Pk. (N Ridge) Sweeny Mtns., Orville Coast

K. Kellogg, W.R. Vennum





1978

1/11

Mt. McKibben (W Ridge),

P. Carrara. P. Rowley

"







Orville Coast









1/19

Tollefson Nunatak,

P. Carrara, K. Kellogg,

"







Southern English Coast

W.R. Vennum





1982

1/27

Monte Frances south summit

G. Casassa, D. Delgado

AAJ 1983, p. 213







(2630m; NW Ridge). Graham Land









2/7

Monte Egregio (1300m; NE Ridge)

A. Izquierdo, P. Toro, A. Velásquez

"





2/15

Monte Williams (2000m; NE Ridge)

D. Delgado, A. Izquierdo, P. Toro, A. Velásquez. A. and C. Marangunic

"





2/17

Monte Williams (2000m; SW wall and Ridge)

G. Casassa, J. Quinteros

"



SENTINEL RANGE









1966

12/18

Vinson Massif (5139m)

J.B. Corbet, J.B. Evans, P.K. Schoening

AAJ 1967, p. 251-257





12/19

"

E. Fukushima, C.D. Hollister,

"









B.S. Marts







12/20

""

N.B. Clinch, W.E. Long, S.C. Silverstein, R.W. Wahlstrom

"





12/21

Mt. Shinn (4800m)

J.B. Corbet, C.D. Hollister, B.S. Marts, R. W. Wahlstrom

"





12/22

"

W.E. Long, P.K. Schoening,

"





12/24

"

N.B. Clinch, J.B. Evans, E. Fukushima, B.S. Marts

"





12/31

Mt. Gardner (4685m)

J.P. Evans, B.S. Marts

"



1967

1/2

"

N.B. Clinch, J.B. Corbet, E. Fukushima, C.D. Hollister, W.E. Long, P.K. Schoening, S.C. Silverstein, R.W. Wahlstrom

"





1/6

Mt. Tyree (4965m)

J.B. Corbet, J.P. Evans

"





1/12

Mt. Ostenso (4180m)

J.P. Evans, C.D. Hollister, S.C. Silverstein, R.W. Wahlstrom

"





1/12

Long Gables (4150m)

E. Fukushima, W.E. Long, B.S. Marts, P.K. Schoening

"



1979

12/22

Vinson Massif, 2nd ascent, via American route of 1966; found flag still flying at summit

P. von Gizycki and W. Buggisch V. Samsonov

AAJ 1982, p. 196



1983

11/23,30

Vinson Massif, 3rd & 4th ascents

C. Bonington, R. Bass, T. Maedo, S. Marts, Y. Miura, R. Ridgeway, F. Wells

AAJ 1984, p. 220-222