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South America, Colombia, New Routes on Pico Bolivar, Santander and Ojeda

New Routes on Picos Bolívar, Santander and Ojeda. After several weeks of difficulty both in obtaining permission from Indian authorities and in actually passing through Indian lands after permission was granted, we set up Base Camp at 15,000 feet on the shore of Laguna Naboba in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Aside from many other smaller climbs, the three described below are believed to be new routes on previously climbed major peaks. Pico Santander (18,373 feet) via southeast face on January 14, 1974 by Kallgren, McKinney to 150 feet from the summit (The route started at the lowest point of the face above the scree and ascended a shallow dihedral with a jam-crack. The second pitch was up broken rock and an upper scree field. The third was straight up, starting with a jam-crack which widened and ended in a bulge. After three progressively easier pitches, we turned back because of the late hour.); Pico Bolívar (18,947 feet) via east face on January 19, 1974 by Kallgren, McKinney (The route started in the center of the face right of the obvious, left-leaning chimney. After two long pitches straight up, we reached the first snowfield early in the third pitch. We continued directly upward to the final wall and traversed slightly left to reach the summit snowfield just south of the summit.); Pico Ojeda (18,012 feet) via south face* on January 24, 1974 by Billip, McKinney (From the basin above La Reina Glacier, the route followed a dihedral which is obvious from below but not seen from the west. After two good pitches, the rock becomes broken as the corner deteriorates. The route then tended left over 200 more feet of broken rock to the summit.) The party members were Jim Wells, Bob Harris, Jim Billip, John Bollard, David Kallgren and I.

William McKinney, Unaffiliated

*Possibly this is the same as the route done by the Italians in 1958.— Editor. Other climbs included Tairona (16,404 feet) via northeast side to ramp east of summit on January 5 by McKinney, Billipp; El Guardián (17,343 feet) via prominent glacier on southwest on January 6 by McKinney, Billipp, Wells, Bollard, Harris; Pico Colón (18,947 feet) on January 17 by McKinney, Kallgren, Billipp, Harris, Wells; La Reina (18,158 feet) from north on January 24 by Kallgren, Bollard, Harris.—Kallgren.