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South America, Southern Peru, Huayanay IV, Cordillera Vilcabamba

Huayanay IV, Cordillera Vilcabamba. Robin and Renee Fedden and Carl Nater of the Andean Society approached from Chillca in the Río Vilcanota valley. They entered the first prominent valley, the Huayabamba, which separates the Huayanay group from the Salcantay group. They ascended the Río Kkeska to the pass, Abra Moyoc Moyoc and descended the Río Silque to enter a small tributary on the northwest side. From there they climbed Huayanay IV (c. 17,000 feet), the fourth in this chain, north of the higher peaks. They attempted Cara Cruz but failed 100 feet from the top.

Spelling of Quechua words. There are three systems being used to write Quechua of the Cuzco dialect. (This does not apply in Ancash.) For new words I prefer the simpler system which eliminates the extra markings. For words already established it is often well to use the conventional spelling but one could put the phonetic spelling afterwards in parentheses.

normal

Linguistic shorthand

globalized





script







aspirated





P

P"

P'



t

t"

t'



c

c"

c'



k

k"

k'



q

q"

q'



normal

System without

globalized





extra markings







aspirated





P

ph

PP



t

th

tt



ch

chh

cch



k

kh

kk



q

qh

qq



normal

Spanish variants

globalized





aspirated





p

ph/pp

pp/ph



t

th/tt

tt/th



ch

ch

ch



k/c/qu

kk/cc/kqu





k/c/qu

kk/cc,kq/qq





The k-sounds are pre-velar as in the English word “cut”. The postvelar q comes from low in the throat and the sound of vowels accompanying it always reduces u to o and i to e.

JOHN RICKER