American Alpine Jounrna and Accidents in North American Climbing

The Führerbücher of Hans and Christian Kaufmann

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  • Publication Year: 1943

The Führerbücher of Hans and Christian Kaufmann

Through the courtesy of G. Hasler, Esq. (A.C.), of Lausanne, the American Alpine Club has received photostatic copies of the Canadian entries in the Führerbücher of Johannes (Hans) Kaufmann (b. 1875) and Christian Kaufmann (1872-1939), of Grindelwald. They were among the best of the Oberland guides of their time, Christian being brought to Canada by Whymper in 1901 and Hans entering the employ of the Canadian Pacific in the same season.

Hans Kaufmann guided in Canada during four seasons, and the entries here presented confirm various ascents about which little else has been recorded. It is of especial interest to find that Gertrude Bell and Hudson Stuck were among his patrons.

Christian Kaufmann’s expedition with Whymper in 1901 is unrecorded in the Führerbüch, the entries covering the period 1902-06, but the book is of importance in containing the only records of the first ascents of such peaks as Mt. Collier and Sheol.—[Ed.]

The Führerbuch of Hans Kaufmann

DURING our camping trip in the Rocky Mountains of Canada in the summer of 1901, John Kaufmann was in our employment for the week beginning July 18. Our camp was in the Valley of the Ten Peaks near Moraine Lake. Under his guidance we ascended Mounts Pinnacle [i.e., Eiffel Peak.—Ed.], Temple and Peaks Nine and Seven of the Ten Peaks, otherwise known as the Stragglers. An attempt was also made to climb Mt. Hungabee but owing to the lateness of the hour and the condition of the snow the party turned back at a point about 100 feet below the final peak.

We are glad of this opportunity to express our sincere appreciation of the strength, the skill and the faithfulness of John Kaufmann as a guide and our great satisfaction with his general efficiency and companionableness.

Charles S. Thompson, Geo. T. Little,

George M. Weed.

Laggan. Aug. 1, 1901. Jno. Kaufmann took me to the summit of Victoria Mountain and I recommend him as a very competent and careful guide.

E. W. D. Holway,

Decorah, Iowa.

C. P. R. Hotel Banff, August 5th, ’01. John Kaufmann on this date accompanied me to the summit of the Cascade Mountain,

Banff. We started at 4.25 a.m. from the C. P. R. Hotel & reached the top at 9.20 or four hours & 55 minutes, the best on record. It was only due to his untiring energy & perseverance that such a quick journey was made & I hope that many more may have benefit of such a splendid guide if they are in the vicinity of Banff or Laggan.

John Paton.

Lake Louise. August 20th, 1901. Hans Kaufmann was our 1st guide up Mount Whyte. We found him everything that a guide with ladies should be, and his careful consideration greatly increased the enjoyment of our first climb in the Rocky Mountains.

Constance L. A. Booth, Harriet A. Booth,

Liverpool, England.

August 30. Today Hans Kaufmann, Swiss Guide, took me to the top of Mt. Lefroy. It was his first trip to the very top and the way in which he picked out the surest & shortest path was a great credit to as young a guide. Kaufmann, I think, combines the energy & dash of youth with the care of an older man. He is too the pleasant companion, speaking excellent English, and I hope many in the future will have the benefit of his services.

Barrett Wendell, Jr.,

Lake Louise.

Lake Louise, July 13, 1902. Hans Kaufmann was my guide on July 11, to the top of Mt. Lefroy, by way of Abbot’s Pass. He showed great strength and perseverance in the ascent, as the snow was soft and in very bad condition. I can recommend him as an excellent guide and pleasant companion.

Irving Langmuir,

New York City.

Hans Kaufmann has accompanied us as guide for six weeks in the Rockies, during which time we climbed Mt. Murchison (3 of the party), Freshfield, Forbes, Howse Peak, Neptuak—& made other expeditions. We consider him a first-class guide. He is an excellent rock-climber with a good knowledge of snow & ice—very strong, most willing & obliging, & a charming companion. We have great pleasure in recommending him.

J. Norman Collie,

H. Woolley,

Hugh E. M. Stutfield,

George M. Weed.

Hans Kaufmann and myself made the first ascent of Mt. Stephen for 1903. He is a very strong and careful climber and also a most agreeable companion. I can recommend him very highly.

Gouverneur Paulding,

American Geo. Soc.

I have great pleasure in adding my testimony to the skill & capacity of Hans Kaufmann. I made two ascents with him, Mt. Whyte and Pope’s Peak [i.e., Mt. Niblock.—Ed.], & Mt. Lefroy, both in very bad weather during which his patience & perseverance were admirable. I wish the weather had permitted of our doing a more interesting climb which I should have been delighted to attempt with him.

Gertrude Lowthian Bell,

Lake Louise, July 2, 1903.

After being piloted to the summit of Mount Lefroy today, by way of Abbot’s Pass, we take the greatest pleasure in testifying to the efficiency of Hans Kaufmann as a guide & also to his possession of all the qualities which go to make an agreeable companion.

H. S. Adams,

Louis B. Runk,

Lake Louise, July 13th, 1903.

Hans Kaufmann is a most excellent guide and a very pleasant companion. His strength, coolness and good judgment give one perfect confidence in following him wherever he goes. I am very sorry that bad weather prevented me from enjoying his skillful guidance on a more difficult mountain than Mt. Lefroy.

Aug. Eggers,

Lake Louise, July 17th, ’03.

Mt. Hungabee, First Ascent, July 21st, 1903. With Hans Kaufmann and his brother Christian Kaufmann I made the first ascent of Mt. Hungabee, July 21st, 1903.

This magnificent peak, for many years considered almost impossible, is probably the most difficult and dangerous summit ever ascended in Canada.

I desire to express my great appreciation of the wonderful skill and splendid courage displayed by Hans and Christian Kaufmann in successfully overcoming all the difficulties and dangers encountered in making the climb of this great summit.

Mt. Temple, July 23d. Returning from Mt. Hungabee, we climbed Mt. Temple from Moraine Lake. On these two peaks Hans Kaufmann most kindly and ably assisted me in my scientific observations for the determination of altitude.

Herschel C. Parker,

Columbia University, New York City.

(Amer. Alpine Club)

Aug. 6th, 1903. This day Hans Kaufmann guided me to the summit of Mt. Fay [i.e., Mt. Bident.—Ed.], the sharp two-pointed peak on the northern side of the pass at the head of Consolation Valley, a first ascent. This was the seventh ascent I have made in these mountains with him and in every case I have found him very careful, cautious and efficient. His bodily strength is remarkable, a guarantee that he would see his party through in any emergency requiring skill and strength.

Charles S. Thompson.

August 12th, 1903. Today with Hans Kaufmann and his brother as guides we went up Mount Victoria. As it was our first climb this year we required some assistance and I cannot speak too highly of his efficiency and skill.

Cecile Roberts,

Cambridge, Mass.

Marion Raymond,

Boston, Mass.

Hans Kaufmann was with Mr. Garden and myself on our expedition to Assiniboine and climbed that mountain with me and C. Häsler on August 18th [1903], and Mount Lefroy on the 27th with C. Kaufmann. In these expeditions he gave unqualified satisfaction in every respect.

W. Douglas, A.C. (London).

Hans Kaufmann climbed Mount Whyte and Pope’s Peak [i.e., Mt. Niblock] with me on 22nd August, and Castle Crag and Mount Aberdeen on 26th August, 1903. Upon each of these expeditions he showed himself to be equally expert on rock and snow, and, in addition, he has all the qualities of a genial companion, which go to add in a high degree to the pleasure of such expeditions.

William Garden, of Aberdeen, Scotland,

Laggan, 27/8/03.

Aug. 28 to Sept. 4, ’03. 1st ascents of Mt. Deltaform and Mt. Biddle. Hans and Christian Kaufmann were our guides on a mountaineering expedition to make the 1st ascents of Mt. Delta- form and Mt. Biddle. Both ascents were successfully made. The ascent of Mt. Deltaform was extremely difficult, probably the most difficult ascent ever made in the Rockies. An idea of its character might be gained from the fact that, although we were camped at the very foot of the Mtn. at an altitude of about 7000 feet (the Mtn. being about 11,000 feet) it took us 10 hours to make the ascent and 21 hours to accomplish the trip, of which time not over ½ hour was spent for rest, returning to camp at 3 o’clock in the morning. The ascent of Mt. Biddle was much easier, but still a difficult climb.

We both feel that we have not words to express our admiration for the most brilliant climbing of Hans and Christian Kaufmann, for their excellent judgment in finding practically the only possible way, apparently never being in doubt for a minute, and for their great and unrivaled care in climbing down the rotten rocks during the several hours of darkness, with occasional snow squalls.

We also both feel that words can not express our gratitude for all this and besides for their kindness, their gentlemanliness and cheerful company.

Lake Louise, Sept. 5, ’03, Herschel C. Parker, Aug. Eggers.

(Amer. Alpine Club)

Field, B. C. June 2nd, 1904. With Hans & Christian Kaufmann I went to the top of Mt. Stephen yesterday.

There was a good deal of snow on the mountain, which helped us rather than otherwise in making the ascent.

The confidence inspired through having such thoroughly competent and resourceful guides added greatly to the pleasure of the expedition.

J. W. D. Patterson,

Woodstock, Ont.

Banff, June 6th, 1904. I was fortunate in again having the services of Hans and Christian Kaufmann, as guides, when I succeeded on June 5th in making a first ascent of Mount Ball. It was a stiff climb & we estimated the altitude at the top to be more than 11,000 feet.

In the difficult work encountered, Hans Kaufmann very clearly demonstrated the fact that he is a most competent & satisfactory guide.

J. W. D. Patterson.

Lake Louise, 26th July, 1904. I take great pleasure in saying that I found Hans & Christian Kaufmann most excellent guides. I ascended Victoria with them yesterday and feel grateful for their patient and tireless care and their unfailing good temper.

Hudson Stuck,

Archdeacon of Alaska.

Hans & Christian Kaufmann have accompanied me on the following expeditions—Mount Lefroy, Mount Victoria, Pope’s Peak [i.e., Mt. Niblock], Mount Whyte, Mount Stephen (from Lake Louise to Field by an unclimbed ridge) & Mount Assiniboine. He is a very good & careful guide on rock, snow & ice & a very pleasant companion & I hope to have the pleasure of climbing more mountains with him.

Gertrude E. Benham,

Lake Louise, Aug. 8th, ’04.

Hans Kaufmann was our guide today up Mount Lefroy. The perfect day and splendid condition of the snow enabled us to make the ascent in rapid time. We were away from the chalet 10 hours & 20 minutes, with 1 hour & 20 minutes at the top.

The good judgment, skill and strength of our guide gave us that feeling of confidence that makes a climb an unmixed delight. His painstaking kindness in answering our frequent questions and in pointing out distant peaks will not be forgotten. We could not desire a better companion and guide for such an expedition.

S. H. Gray, Dundas, Ont.,

Alec M. Gordon, Banff, Alta.

Lake Louise, Aug. 27, 1904. I ascended Mt. Temple with Hans Kaufmann yesterday and found him pleasant, careful and a first class guide in every way.

E. W. D. Holway.

Lake Louise, Aug. 30th, 1904. I write with the greatest pleasure a word of praise for Hans Kaufmann as a mountain guide. I have been up Lefroy & Victoria with him. He is careful, willing, patient & obliging. He is a companion whom I wish I could see more of in the mountains or elsewhere. He is furthermore skillful & gives confidence at once. Such trustworthiness is rare in any walk in life.

Geo. B. Morison,

Boston, Mass.

The Führerbuch of Christian Kaufmann

1902. It has been a great pleasure to renew our acquaintance with Christian Kaufmann, & climb with him in the Rocky Mtns., as well as in the Alps.

On May 22nd he, with Christian Häsler, guided us up Mount Stephen, the only ascent made except at a much later season. The lateness of the Spring, combined with recent heavy snowfalls made the climb unusually laborious & difficult & the amount of soft snow & the condition of the upper rocks demanded great care & steadiness. We can only endorse all the praise already given by previous writers in this book & express the hope that we [The remainder of this entry is lacking.]

I have had great pleasure in climbing with Christian Kaufmann and I have felt throughout the most entire confidence in his skill, his strength, and his faithfulness & sense of responsibility. The climbs we made together—and I wish they might have been many more—were Mt. Stephen, Abbot’s Pass, & Duchesnay Pass. He came with me to Glacier, together with Chr. Häsler, to climb Sir Donald, but snow prevented the ascent.

George B. Dorr, of Boston, U. S. A.,

Sept. 28th, 1902, Glacier, B. C.

Laggan. June 29, 1903. I was delighted to find Christian Kaufmann in the Rocky Mountains & have done a couple of climbs with him here & at Field. I wish the weather had permitted us to attempt some more interesting work together, for which his admirable alpine knowledge well qualifies him. He has done so much pioneer work in this country that it would be difficult to find a better guide in Canada. He is besides an agreeable & most obliging companion. I look forward to meeting him again in Grin- delwald.

Gertrude Lowthian Bell.

Lake Louise, Aug. 12th, 1904. Today, guided by Christian Kaufmann, I ascended Mt. Lefroy. The pleasure got from this expedition was greatly enhanced by his agreeable disposition & store of information. The strength, skill & care displayed by Mr. Kaufmann firmly convinced me that I could never have a better guide.

Jas. R. Young.

With pleasure we add our testimony as to the perfect reliability, willingness and excellent spirit of Christian Kaufmann, who has just guided us, making the first ascent of Mount Goodsir, the highest summit of the Ottertail Range.

This peak presents every variety of crag and snow climbing, demanding the greatest skill on the part of the guides. In all points of his craft we found him equally strong, while his cheery nature rendered him also a pleasant companion during our five days’ tour.

Charles E. Fay, A.C., A.A.C.,

Herschel C. Parker, A.C., A.A.C.

Mt. Stephen, July 11th, 1903. Christian Kaufmann was my guide on this climb and the pleasure of his society added greatly to the enjoyment of the trip.

Mt. Goodsir, First Ascent. With Christian Kaufmann as leading guide we made the first ascent of Mt. Goodsir, the highest peak of the Ottertail Range and probably the highest peak in Canada south of the C. P. R. [It is overtopped by Mt. Assiniboine.—Ed.] on July 16th, 1903.

I cannot too highly commend the great skill and good judgment Christian Kaufmann displayed in overcoming the many difficulties of this magnificent peak, and he deserves the very highest credit for finally conquering this commanding summit.

Mt. Hungabee, First Ascent. On July 21st, 1903, with Christian Kaufmann as leading guide, and his brother, Hans Kaufmann, I made the first ascent of Mt. Hungabee, the great “Chief” of the Canadian Rockies, and probably the most difficult and dangerous peak ever ascended in Canada.

It was entirely due to the wonderful knowledge of mountaineering and great courage of Christian and Hans Kaufmann that the ascent of this almost impossible summit was successfully made, and I desire to thank them personally for giving me the opportunity of making so splendid a climb.

Mt. Temple, July 23d. On our return from Mt. Hungabee we climbed Mt. Temple from Moraine Lake and made a determination of the altitude with the Hypsometer.

I wish to add that on all these peaks I had the kind interest and assistance of Christian Kaufmann in my scientific observations.

Herschel C. Parker,

Columbia University, New York City.

(Amer. Alpine Club)

Ascent of Mt. Victoria. On July 30th, 1903, I climbed this mountain with the assistance of Christian Kaufmann as my sole guide. The ascent was made with difficulty and I had to rely frequently upon the alertness and strength of the guide. Being unaccompanied by a second guide, as is the usual custom, he took the greatest precautions in the preparation of safe footholds. I can cheerfully recommend him as a guide who knows his business, is strong as an athlete and as sure footed as a mountain goat.

W. Clyde Jones,

100 Washington St., Chicago, 111.

1903. August 8th. Pope’s Peak [i.e., Mt. Niblock]. August 10th. Mount Lefroy. On the first named date we had the pleasure of climbing Pope’s Peak, entirely a rock climb without snow and offering very fine and extended views. On the 10th we ascended Mt. Lefroy, unfortunately not getting very good views, as the summit was in cloud most of the time.

Our guide on both trips was Christian Kaufmann, and we heartily commend him to others for his skill and his good companionship on a trip. In climbing with him one feels his knowledge of mountains and experience are so great that one would be willing to climb anywhere with him as guide and director.

Alex. F. Ormsbee, New York,

Benj. F. Seaver, New York.

August 12, 1903. With Christian Kaufmann as guide we climbed Mount Victoria today and we can heartily recommend him for his great skill and strength and his never-failing cheerfulness.

Marion Raymond,

Cecile Roberts.

Aug. 19, 1903. On this day with Christian Kaufmann as guide we climbed Mt. Lefroy, making the ascent easily and quickly, thanks to his skill, as we most heartily recommend him for his skill and caution.

W. C. Rich,

H. P. Rich, Minnesota, U. S. A.

Aug. 15, 1903. I have been on two expeditions with Christian Kaufmann. He took my brother and me along part of the arete joining the west end of Victoria to Mt. Whyte. [This is the only record of the first ascent of the peak now known as Mt. Collier.—Ed.] The climb was new and long & rather trying, so we were particularly glad of being led by such an experienced mountaineer.

The second climb was up Mt. Huber (first ascent) [The first ascent was made on August 9th by G. Collier and E. Tewes, with the guides C. Bohren and C. Kaufmann.—Ed.] and Victoria. I am very glad to have climbed with Christian Kaufmann & to have made his acquaintance.

Gerard Collier.

18 August, 1903. Mit Christ. Kaufmann den Mt. Lefroy bestiegen, was mit seiner Beihilfe ausserordentlich zufrieden.

Dr. Victor R. von Bauer,

Brünn, Mähren, Oesterreich.

With Christian Kaufmann and his brother Hans I climbed Mt. Lefroy today and found, as I expected, him to be a splendid guide.

W. Douglas, A.C.,

27 August, 1903.

Christian Kaufmann was with me during an eight weeks’ trip in July & August, 1902, amongst the highest Canadian Rockies, from 30 to 80 miles from the railroad. Big climbing commenced on July 19 and between this date & Aug. 26, 10 first ascents of larger peaks were made, several new passes and a considerable quantity of mountain exploration achieved.

On all but two occasions Kaufmann & I climbed alone, as my expected companions were unable at the last moment to make the trip, and he is one of a very small number of Swiss guides with whom such an undertaking could be safely carried through, as the conditions were such that only the highest qualities of skill & experience could have achieved—with only two on the rope— without accident or extreme peril on several of the climbs we made.

No praise could be too great for his work on Mt. Bryce, whilst on Mt. Forbes and numerous other occasions he had opportunity to demonstrate his quite first-class ability and did so most thoroughly.

July 19: Mt. Columbia, c. 12,500 feet, a 22 hrs. expedition: ice & snow work throughout.

July 24: Mt. Lyell, c. 11,900 feet; 8 hrs. ascent.

July 31: Un-named Peak [Mons Peak], c. 10,200 feet, 6I/2 hrs. ascent.

Aug. 4: Mt. Freshfield, c. 10,800 feet, 8 hrs. ascent.

Aug. 10: Mt. Forbes, c. 12,500 feet [11,902 ft.—Ed.], 8½ hrs. ascent from high bivouac: some first-class rock work. On the last 2 peaks, Prof. Collie’s party with Hans Kaufmann, joined us. Christian led throughout on Forbes & alternately on Freshfield. Mountain traversed.

Aug. 19: Un-named Peak, c. 10,000 feet, on Divide Ridge, W. of Mt. Lyell: the same evening making our way by aretes, cliffs & an Un-named Peak [Turret Peak, i.e., the present Rice E. No. 1.—Ed.], c. 10,500 ft. to Thompson Pass & our Columbia Camp, 18¾ hrs.

Aug. 21: Mt. Bryce, c. 10,800 feet [This is a curious underestimation, the correct altitude being 11,507 ft.—Ed.], from a high bivouac, ascent in 11 hrs.: snow conditions very bad & some extremely awkward rock work, mostly covered on the return journey in the dark. 20½ hrs.

Aug. 23: Un-named Peak, c. 10,750 feet [Mt. Alexandra, 11,650 ft.]. 8½ hrs. ascent.

Aug. 26: Mt. Wilson, c. 10,900 feet; traversed from end to end. Ascent 8½ hrs.

Details to be found in Alpine Journal for February, 1903.

James Outram.

Aug. 28th to Sept. 4th, ’03. 1st Ascents of Mt. Deltaform and Biddle. [The remainder of this entry, signed by Parker and Eggers, is a duplication of that in Hans Kaufmann’s book, and is, therefore, omitted.—Ed.]

Field, B. C., June 2nd, 1904. I had the pleasure yesterday to make the ascent of Mt. Stephen, in company with Christian Kaufmann and his brother Hans. There is rather more snow on the mountain now than is apt to be found later in the season, but as we made an early start—4 a.m., it was quite hard, & the climb though at times arduous, was, on the whole, not difficult.

With such sturdy, competent and cheerful guides, it was impossible to experience any real anxiety, even at points where the going was, to say the least, a bit awkward.

J. W. D. Patterson,

Woodstock, Ontario.

Banff, June 6th, 1904. Following the ascent of Mount Stephen with Christian Kaufmann and his brother, I succeeded in making a first ascent, with the same guides, of Mount Ball, on June 5th. Unfortunately we had with us no instruments, but the guides are certain that the altitude will be found to be above 11,000 feet.

We were fourteen hours on the mountain, and encountered some difficult work, both on rocks & snow, and I was most glad to be confirmed in the good opinion I had formed of Christian Kaufmann, as an experienced and reliable guide.

J. W. D. Patterson.

July 30th, 1904. On July 25th I made the ascent of Victoria from the Chalet of Lake Louise with Christian Kaufmann as my guide and accompanied by my friends Rev. H. Stuck & Theo. Scudder, guided by his brother, Hans Kaufmann.

Not being in the best condition for so serious a venture I am the more grateful for the skill and kindness of these brothers. Christian was a most agreeable rope-fellow and enabled me to make the laborious ascent and return without great fatigue. Leaving the Chalet at 4.30 a.m. & being delayed by condition of snow, we arrived at summit (11,650 ft.) at 3 p.m., and returning in less than one-half the time of ascent. I shall always cherish most grateful & pleasant memories both of the splendid mountain and my true and patient guide.

John E. Bushnell.

Lake Louise, July 31, 1904. With Christian Kaufmann I climbed Lefroy, leaving the Chalet at 4 a.m. and reaching the summit at about 10 a.m., making a quick ascent, owing to his dexterity and good judgment in selecting the way and avoiding the difficulties that always beset the climber of the high “Alps.” He is a guide of approved experience and thoroughly trustworthy.

Frederick C. Hornby,

Redlands, Calif.

Lake Louise, July 31, 1904. Christian Kaufmann was my guide on two occasions, and I most heartily recommend him to those who wish to climb the neighboring mountains. He made the ascent of Lefroy so easy and entertaining, that the distance seemed much shorter than it is.

Raymond Hornby,

Redlands, Calif.

Christian Kaufmann has accompanied me as guide on the following expeditions—Mount Lefroy, Mount Victoria, Pope’s Peak [i.e., Mt. Niblock], Mount Whyte, Mount Stephen (from Lake

Louise to Field), Hiji [Heejee, i.e., Mt. Fay.—Ed.], Mount Temple No. 3 & No. 6 & Mount Assiniboine, also another peak whose name I do not know [i.e., the watershed peak between Mt. Quadra and Chimney Peak.—Ed.]. Of these expeditions, four were first ascents & our route up Mount Stephen was by an unclimbed ridge. On rocks, ice & snow Christian shows the greatest care & skill & is a very agreeable companion, which adds much to the pleasure of climbing, & I hope to have some more climbs with him, in the future.

Gertrude E. Benham,

Lake Louise, Aug. 8, ’04.

Lake Louise, August 10, 1904. We made the ascent of Mt. Lefroy today in company with Christian Kaufmann. It was our first really difficult climb, and it was made extremely pleasant for us by our guide. We both wish to commend him for his skill, pleasant good-nature and untiring energy, and we both hope to do some further work with him.

Robert E. Burke,

Boston, Theophilus Conzelman,

St. Louis.

Lake Louise, Sept. 5, ’04. I have this summer had the pleasure of having had Christian Kaufmann and his brother Hans Kaufmann as my guides on an unsuccessful attempt to make the first ascent of the north tower (Mt. Goodsir group), when we were turned back 500 feet from the top by a raging snowstorm. I have also had Christian K. alone as guide on Mt. Victoria, Mt. Odaray (first ascent) [The first ascent was made by McArthur in 1887. —Ed.], and on Mt. Stephen.

I must subscribe to every word of praise which I have written on pages 120 & 121. The more I see of their work, the more do I admire their skill, coolness and excellent judgment, and the more thorough is my confidence in them in every respect.

Aug. Eggers.

Lake Louise, July 16th & 17th, 1905. With Christian Kaufmann I ascended the Devil’s Tooth by the snow couloir facing Lake Agnes and made the first ascent of Mount Sheol [This is the only record of this ascent.—Ed.]. Want of time prevented me

from attempting anything bigger, but I was very pleased to have had this opportunity of climbing with him and hope to do more with him in future.

P. S. Thompson,

Penarth, England.

August 4, 1905, with Christian Kaufmann as guide I went up Mt. Whyte. On July 28, 1906, he piloted me up Mt. Temple, and on July 30, 1906, up Mt. Victoria. I cannot use language too strong to tell my appreciation of his ability and trustworthiness. I would go with him anywhere and attempt any climb for which he said I was fitted, confident that his skill and strength would insure my safety and success. Besides this, his intelligence and courteous demeanor make him a very agreeable companion.

Frank W. Freeborn,

New York.

Lake Louise, July 31, 1906.

August 4th to 14th [1906] went over Baker [Amiskwi] Pass to the Blaeberry and climbed Mount Mummery, so far as we know not before climbed, with Christian as chief guide. From our camp near the mouth of the Mummery Brook the climb took all day, but Christian laid out the way so skilfully and led us so well that we were in as good condition when we came down as when we went up. His presence added greatly at all times to the pleasure of the excursion, as we found him the best of companions, always agreeable and sympathetic. We have also had pleasant climbs at Lake Louise.

Samuel Cabot, Jr.,

Robert Walcott,

W. Rodman Peabody.

On August 30th, 1906, Christian Kaufmann guided me up Mt. Victoria—a most enjoyable little expedition. He is most steady, reliable and full of resource and besides being a first-rate guide with a complete knowledge of the mountains of this district and a past-master in all ice-craft, he is also a most excellent companion. I shall hope to climb with him again.

F. W. Drake,

London.

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